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ISPE_酸洗钝化_PASSIVATION(二)

时间:2013年04月18日 ⁄ 分类: 制药工程 评论:10
11.3.8   Modified Passivation Procedures
11.3.8   修改的钝化规程

A passivation procedure can be modified to deal with a variety of soils, surface finishes and weld area conditions. Adjusting contact times and solution's temperature and concentration would be the simplest way to modify a specific procedure. Sometimes detergent wash or acid wash chemicals are changed or modified with additives to remove certain soils. For example, when removing rouge, solutions containing sodium hydrosulfite can be substituted for the detergent wash step of the procedure. Citric and Phosphoric Acid also could be used as they do have some ability to remove light rouging. Another example would be the use of Hydrofluoric Acid, or more specifically, Ammonium Bifluoride to remove silica scale. The descaling step and associated rinse would necessitate additional steps being added to the standard procedure.
可修改钝化规程以处理污垢、表面抛光以及焊接区域的各种情况。修改一份特定的规程的最简单的方法是调整接触时间以及溶液温度和浓度。有时可通过添加去除特定污垢的试剂来改变或修改去垢剂洗液或酸洗化学试剂。例如:在去除水锈时,可用含有次硫酸钠的溶液代替去垢剂冲洗步骤。也可以用柠檬酸和磷酸,因为它们具有去除轻微的水锈的功能。其他的例子是使用氢氟酸,或者更明确的说是用氟化氢氨来去除二氧化硅污垢。除垢步骤及其附带的清洗步骤使得必须向标准规程中添加额外的步骤。

It is important when developing a passivation procedure, that laboratory testing is performed to determine the effectiveness of your procedure. Without preliminary laboratory testing, an educated guess would have to be made and the results may not prove satisfactory.
在开发一个钝化规程时,执行实验室检测以确定规程的效果是重要的。如果没有初期的实验室检测,则应做出有根据的推测并且该结果可能不能证明。

Below is a guide that can be used for passivating and derouging stainless steel components, piping, and equipment. The chart has some possible options for determination of the contamination and a course of action.
以下内容可用于指导不锈钢组件、管线和设备的钝化和除锈。该图表有一些用于确定可能的污染的选项以及采取的措施。

Cleaning and Passivation
清洁和钝化

Condition/Status

情况/状态

Contamination Analytical Method

污染分析方法

Cleaning& Passivation Method

清洁和钝化方法

System Chemistry

系统化学作用

Procedure

操作

New Component Electropolished电解抛光的新组件

N/A

2,4

3

2

Component Newly Welded

新焊接的组件

N/A

1,3,4

1,2,3

1,2

New System – Tubing

新系统-配管

N/A

2

2,3,4

2

Component/System Discolored (Gold Color)

变色(金色)的组件/系统

1

1,2,3,4

1,2,3,4,6

2

Component/System Discolored (Brown, Red/Brown Color)

变色(棕、红色/棕色)的组件/系统

1,2

2,3

4,5,6

3

Component/System Discolored (Black, Blue/Black Color)

变色(黑、蓝色/黑色)的组件/系统

2,3

2,3

4,5,6

3



11.3.9   Contamination Analysis
11.3.9   污染分析

Method 1 Filtration of 1 liter sample through a 0.2-0.5 um filter and inspect.
方法1:用0.2-0.5um的过滤器过滤1升样品并检查。

Method 2 Quantitative analysis of the specified metals and organic compounds with wet chemistry techniques or as available.
方法2:用湿化学技术或其他有效方法定量分析特定的金属和有机化合物。

Method 3 SEM or Auger Electron microprobe/spectroscopy for analysis of surface chemistry and contamination.
方法3:用SEM或欧杰电子影像能谱仪/光谱法来分析表面化学作用和污染。

11.3.10   Cleaning and Passivation Method
11.3.10   清洁和钝化方法

Method 1 Clean surface with aqueous cleaning solution, apply passivation paste to surface, rinse surface with DI water until traces of chemicals are removed.
方法1:用水清洁溶液清洁表面,向表面应用钝化剂,用去离子水冲洗表面直到全部除去化学试剂的痕迹。

Method 2 Circulate cleaning solutions through piping or vessels by circulation method. Circulate cleaning solutions as required by procedure. Circulate passivation solution as per recommended conditions. Rinse surfaces once through with DI water until conductivity of inlet and outlet fluids are within tolerances.
方法2:用循环方法在管线或容器中循环清洁溶液。循环清洁溶液应符合规程的要求。根据推荐的条件,循环钝化溶液。用去离子水单次使用冲洗表面直到入口和出口的液体的电导率在容许范围内。

Method 3 Spray cleaning and passivation solutions onto surfaces of vessels, containers, and equipment as per recommended conditions. Rinse surfaces for minimum of 30 minutes per each rinse stage, and perform triple rinse.
方法3:按照推荐的条件,向管子、容器和设备的表面喷射清洁和钝化溶液。对表面进行三次冲洗,每次冲洗30分钟。

Method 4 Soak components or equipment items in treating solutions or tanks as per recommended conditions. The minimum soak time per each solution is two hours. Process requires cleaning, passivation, and rinsing as a minimum. The cleaning system should include circulation, filtration, and heating.
方法4:按照推荐的条件,将元件或设备零件浸泡在处理液或槽中。每个溶液的最小浸泡时间是2小时。流程要求至少有清洁、钝化和冲洗步骤。清洁系统应包括循环、过滤和加热。

11.3.11   System Chemistry
11.3.11   系统化学作用

Chemistry 1   Nitric acid passivation is performed at Ambient Temperature for 30 to 60 minutes and at 50-60℃ for 20 to 40 minutes.
化学作用1:在环境温度下硝酸钝化30-60分钟,在50-60℃钝化20-40分钟。

Chemistry 2   Alkaline degreasing is performed with detergents (phosphates, sodium hydroxide, and potassium hydroxide), pH buffers, and surfactant. The process will remove organic films and particulate debris from the surface of the stainless steel. Utilize approximately 1.0-2.0% detergent, 0.2-0.5% buffer and 0.01-0.2% surfactant.
化学作用2:用去垢剂(磷酸盐、氢氧化钠和氢氧化钾)、pH缓冲液和表面活性剂来进行碱去油脂。该过程能去除不锈钢表面的有机物膜和微粒子残骸。使用大约1.0-2.0%的去垢剂,0.2-0.5%的缓冲液和0.01-0.2%表面活性剂。

Chemistry 3   Citric acid/chelant passivation is performed with chelants, reducing agents, surfactants, and pH buffers. These systems are proprietary processes and the exact chemistry and percentages are not available. The chelant systems are able to remove most metal contamination from the surface including iron, manganese, aluminum, and copper. The systems include 3.0-5.0% Citric acid and a variety of chelants, reducing agents, pH buffers, and surfactants.
化学作用3:用螯合剂、还原剂、表面活性剂和pH缓冲液来进行柠檬酸/螯合剂钝化。该系统是专利保护程序,化学试剂和百分比是无法得到的。螯合剂能去除表面的多数金属污染,包括铁、锰、铝和铜。该系统包括3.0-5.0%柠檬酸和各种螯合剂、还原剂、pH缓冲液和表面活性剂。

Chemistry 4   Mineral acid cleaning and passivation can be performed for iron oxide removal or passivation. Typical mineral acids include phosphoric, sulfuric or sulfamic acid. These acids can be utilized at 3.0-10.0% concentrations and at a variety of temperatures. Sulfuric acid is not typically used due to its highly hazardous nature.
化学作用4:可进行无机酸清洁和钝化以去除或钝化氧化铁。常用的无机酸包括磷酸、硫磺酸或胺磺酰基酸。这些酸的使用浓度是3.0-10.0%,并且能在各种温度下使用。由于高危险性,不常用硫磺酸。

Chemistry 5   Intensified acid/chelant systems are utilized for removal of high temperature iron oxide films, silica scales, and organic/carbon films. These systems are a citric based solution with additional organic acids, strong reducing agents, and acid chelants. These systems can use fluorides for silica removal. After strong acid cleaning in a reducing environment, it is recommended that an oxidizing flush be used to ensure oxidation at the surface, removal of organic films, and sanitization of the system.
化学作用5:强酸/螯合剂系统用于去除高温的氧化铁膜、二氧化硅污垢和有机物/碳膜。这些系统是以柠檬酸为基础添加有机酸、强还原剂和酸螯合剂。这些系统可用氟化物去除二氧化硅。在还原的环境下的强酸清洗后,推荐用氧化冲洗以确保表面的氧化、有机物膜的去除和系统的消毒。

Chemistry 6   Sodium Hydrosulfite, a strong reducing agent, typically used at 5% by weight at 120 to 160℉ for two to four hours.
化学作用6:次硫酸钠是强还原剂,通常的用法是:在120 to 160℉、5%浓度(重量百分比)下作用2-4小时。

11.3.12   Procedures
11.3.12   规程

11.3.12.1   Procedure 1
11.3.12.1   规程1

Clean surface of organic film and other debris.
清洁表面的有机物膜和其他的残骸。

a) Rinse surface with DI water.
  用去离子水冲洗表面。

b) Apply gelled acid onto surface at ambient temperature.
  在环境温度下向表面应用胶化酸。

c) Brush passivating agent on surface very 15 minutes, maintain a wet surface.
  在表面上刷钝化剂15分钟,保持表面潮湿。

d) After one hour minimum, brush surface with sodium bicarbonate solution until all reaction ceases.
  至少一小时后,在表面上刷碳酸氢钠溶液直到所有的反应都终止。

e) Rinse surface with Dl water until all traces of chemicals are removed.
  用去离子水冲洗表面直到所有的化学试剂的痕迹都被去除了。

11.3.12.2   Procedure 2
11.3.12.2   规程2

a) Fill system with Dl water and perform leak test with circulation pump.
  向系统中填充去离子水并用循环泵测漏。

b) Circulate for a minimum of one to two hours with alkaline degrease stages and heat to 60-80℃ with filtration.
  用去油脂的碱至少循环1-2小时,并加热到60-80℃并过滤。

c) Drain and rinse with Dl water.
  用去离子水引流并冲洗。

d) Circulate for a minimum of one to two hours with acid solution and heat to 60-80℃ with filtration.
  用酸溶液至少循环1-2小时,并加热到60-80℃并过滤。

e) Drain and rinse with Dl water.
  用去离子水引流并冲洗。

11.3.12.3   Procedure 3
11.3.12.3   规程3

a) Fill system with Dl water and perform leak test with circulation pump.
  向系统中填充去离子水并用循环泵测漏。

b) Circulate for a minimum of two hours with alkaline degrease stages and heat to 60 - 80℃ with filtration.
  用去油脂的碱至少循环2小时,并加热到60-80℃并过滤。

c) Drain and rinse with Dl water.
  用去离子水引流并冲洗。

d) Circulate for a minimum of eight hours with intensified passivating acid solution and heat to 60 - 80℃.
  用强化的钝化酸溶液至少循环8小时,并加热到60-80℃。

e) Drain and rinse with Dl water.
  用去离子水引流并冲洗。

f) Flush with oxidizing/sanitization solution.
  用氧化/消毒液冲洗。

g) Drain and rinse with Dl water.
  用去离子水引流并冲洗。

11.3.13   Rouging
11.3.13   水锈

Rouging is seen in many water systems, usually high temperature (80℃) distilled water and clean steam systems. Rouge is not limited to storage and distribution systems; it also can be found in distillation and clean steam generating equipment. The main constituent of the rouge film is ferric oxide, but it can contain iron, chromium, and nickel of different forms. From Auger Electron Spectroscopy, it has been found that the outer layer of a rouge film is carbon rich, and the underlying region is iron and oxygen rich, probably iron oxide. Over time, the film uniformly distributes itself throughout the system. The exact mechanism of the rouge formation and proliferation is unknown. Because the phenomenon occurs in systems that offer the most corrosive environment, it is thought that low molecular weight ions of the stainless steel, such as iron, are drawn to the metal surface or are dissolved and uniformly re-deposited throughout the system. Others feel the rouge is an external contaminant probably colloidal in nature that once in the system, uniformly deposits itself.
在许多水系统,通常是高温(80℃)蒸馏水和清洁蒸气系统都能发现水锈。不仅仅在储存和分配系统中存在水锈,也能在蒸馏和清洁蒸气生成设备中发现水锈。水锈膜的主要成分是三价的铁氧化物,但它也可能含有不同形式的铁、铬和镍。通过欧杰电子能谱仪,发现水锈膜外层富含碳,在下层富含铁和氧,可能是氧化铁。一段时间后,膜能均一分布在整个系统中。水锈形成以及增殖的确切的基理是未知的。因为该现象出现在能提供最多的腐蚀环境的系统中,有人认为不锈钢的低分子量的离子(如铁)被拉到金属表面,或者溶解并再分配的整个系统中。其他一些人认为水锈是可能是胶体的性质的外部污染,它们一旦存在与系统中就可以均匀的沉积。

Rouging would seem to be very site (facility) specific because of the variety in appearance and texture. Rouge can be observed in a variety of colors including; orange, light-red, red, reddish-brown, purple, blue, gray, and black. It can be a very loose film, dust like in appearance and texture that can be readily wiped off to a tight pertinacious film that requires scraping with a sharp instrument to be removed. In addition to the diversification already discussed, rouge can be multi-layered exhibiting different colors and textures. Traditionally the red rouges are most common in high purity high temperature water systems, while the blue/black rouges are typically found in clean steam systems.
水锈似乎是位点(装置)特异性的,因为它有各种形态和结构。水锈有多种颜色,包括:橘色、淡红色、红色赤褐色、紫色、蓝色、灰色和黑色。相对于需要用尖锐的工具刮除的紧固的膜来说,它是非常松散的膜,外表和结果上看来象灰尘,很容易擦去。水锈除了具有上述的多样化性之外,它还可能是多层的、具有不同的颜色和结构。在高纯水高温水系统中,红色水锈是最常见的,而蓝色/黑色的水锈在清洁蒸气系统中比较常见。

Evidence of the migration of rouging in distribution systems can be demonstrated by monitoring a system over a period of time. Key places to look for rouging are still and clean steam generator discharge lines, tank water/vapor interface, pump heads, Teflon® diaphragms on diaphragm valves, interior surface of tank spray ball, and heat effected area of welds. Rouge deposition seems to have an affinity for Teflon® and would be one of the first places to look for signs of system rouging.
通过对系统监控一段时间,就可以证明分配系统中水锈的迁移迹象。观察水锈的关键位点是:蒸馏和清洁蒸气生成器排放线,水/蒸气槽接口,泵扬程,隔膜阀上的Teflon®隔膜,槽喷洗球的内表面以及受热影响的焊接区。水锈沉积似乎对Teflon®有亲和性,是观察系统上锈标志的首选位点。

In some cases, the rouging appears as quickly as a month or two after system start up. In other cases, it is several years before rouging is observed. In either case rouging is an industry wide phenomena. In a specific case, a facility cold WFI system would re-rouge within a week of being derouged and passivated. The system was derouged and passivated a total of three times. Each time, within a week, the system was totally rouged again. The specific cause was never determined.
在某些情况下,系统启动后一两个月就会生锈。在其他情况下,若干年后才能观察到生锈。在任一情况下,生锈都是工业的普遍的现象。有一个特殊情况,某工厂的冷注射用水系统会在除锈和钝化后一周内再生锈。他们的系统总共除锈和钝化过三次。每次除锈后一周内,系统又完全的再生锈了。该特殊情况的原因还未确定。

The presence of rouge in high purity water systems has not been proven to effect water quality. The FDA has no written position addressing rouging, its existence, or presence in high temperature high purity water clean steam systems. Their criterion has and remains to be in meeting established USP standards for water quality. There is some fear that as the unwanted film develops, it might eventually slough off and be disperse throughput the system. This, in fact, does occur and is manifested in systems with filtered use points. Filters become discolored with the typical reddish-brown rouge color.
还未证明高纯水系统中出现的水锈会影响水质。FDA还没有书面讨论生锈及其存在方式,或在高温高纯水清洁系统中的存在。它们的标准已经并一直要符合已建立的关于水质的USP标准。有人担心:当这些不利的膜形成后,它们最终可能会脱落并分散到整个系统中。事实上,这也是存在的并已被系统中的有过滤器的用点证明了。过滤器通常就变成赤褐色的锈色。

Phosphoric, citric, oxalic acids, and ammonium citrates are used depending on the severity of the problem. Oxalic acid solutions are used for the worst cases of rouge. Passivation with nitric acid is required after an oxalic acid rinse.
视问题的严重性而确定使用磷酸、柠檬酸、草酸和柠檬酸铵类。草酸溶液用于最差的生锈情况。用草酸冲洗后,必须要用硝酸钝化。

11.3.14   Preparing Systems for Passivation
11.3.14   钝化的系统准备

Hydrostatic pressure testing is the first test in preparing a system for passivation. All newly constructed or modified systems require pressure testing prior to implementing any chemical procedure. The second check prior to passivation is to confirm the compatibility of the system, its components, and the passivating solutions. This would include in-line instrumentation, flow meters, regulating valves ultraviolet lights, pumps, pump seals, filter membranes, gasket and seal materials, and other specialized in-line devices. The manufacturer or supplier should be consulted to determine whether their equipment is compatible with passivating solutions. Items that are not compatible should be removed from the system and replaced with a blank, valve, spool piece, or temporary jumper hose. In some cases with in-line instrumentation, chemical incompatibility may lie in the effect it has on instrument calibration. Incompatible components should be processed independent of the main system.
在系统钝化的准备中,第一项检测是流体静力学压力检测。所有的新构建的或修改的系统在执行任何化学操作之前必须检测压力。钝化前的第二项检测是确定系统的配伍性、系统的组件以及钝化溶液。该项包括在线仪器、流量计、调节阀、紫外光、泵、泵的密封件、过滤膜、垫圈和密封材料以及其他特殊的在线设备。应咨询设备的生产商或供应商以确定他们的设备是否和钝化溶液配伍。不配伍的任何零件应从系统中移开并以间隙、阀、管段或者暂时的跨接软管替代。在某些情况下,对于在线仪器,化学不配伍性可能是在于它对仪器校准的影响。不配伍的组件应脱离主系统单独处理。

Once the system/chemical compatibility has been established, the system to be passivated should be isolated from existing systems, process equipment, utility tie-ins, etc. In most cases, in-line heat exchangers (excluding plate and frame design) and small filter housings (filter elements removed) are left in place and flowed through. This is acceptable as long as the ability to vent and drain is available.
一旦系统/化学配伍性建立了,将进行钝化的系统应和现有的系统、加工设备、连接的公共设施等隔离。在多数情况下,在线热交换器(不包括金属板和支架)和小的过滤器罩(移除过滤元素)是留在系统中并有钝化溶液流穿的。只要排气和排水能力是合适的,这就是可取的。

Isolated equipment that requires passivation should be handled independently from the main system unless, by agreement, it is left in-line and flowed through. All isolation points must be valved to avoid forming dead legs in the system being passivated.
要求钝化的隔离的设备应隔离主系统独立的处理,只有经允许后它才能留在系统中并经钝化溶液流穿。所有的隔离点必须有阀控制,以避免被钝化的系统形成盲管。

Elimination of all dead legs is critical to ensure chemical contact and complete rinsing.
消除所有的盲管是关键的,这能确保化学试剂的接触以及完全的冲洗。

High point vents and low point drains are desirable for complete filling and draining of systems. In distribution systems where high point vents are not installed, high velocity flow and flow restriction techniques can be used to ensure complete filling of the system.
高位点的排气口和低位点的排水口是用于系统完全的充填和排水。在分配系统中没有安装高位点的排气口,可采用高流速以及流速限制技术以确保系统的完全充填。

After the system has been pressure tested, compatibility has been confirmed, the system isolated and dead legs valved, consideration must be given to automated controls that govern the system.
在系统经压力检测、确认配伍性、系统隔离以及阀控制盲管后,必须考虑到管理系统的自动化控制。

Are all the automatic valves operational? 是否所有的自动控制阀运转?

Will valve alignments atypical of normal system operation be permitted? 正常系统运行的阀门的不标准的调整是否是允许的?

Will in-line temperature sensors open diverter valves if unusual temperatures are detected? 当探测到不正常温度时,在线温度感应器是否能打开换向器阀?

Can the desired flow path safely and effectively be achieved.是否能安全有效的达到理想的流动路径?

Passivation contractors generally supply temporary equipment such as circulating vessels, pumps, heat exchangers, flow meters, filters, hoses, spray heads, fittings, specialized adapters or transition fittings, and neutralization vessels. All this equipment should be inspected to assure it meets the requirements for its intended use.
钝化承包商通常会提供临时的设备,如:循环管道、泵、热交换器、流量计、过滤器、软管、喷头、配件、特殊的适配器或接头配件以及中和用容器。所有的这些设备应是经检查的以确保它们能满足它们预期的使用要求。

11.3.15   Disposal of Passivation Chemicals
11.3.15   钝化用的化学试剂的处理

Disposal of waste solution is important issue. The chemicals discussed for cleaning and passivating are all water-soluble and can easily be neutralized. Except for heavy metals dissolved in the acid wash solution, the only criterion that makes the waste solutions hazardous is having the pH outside the range of 2 to 12.5. It is the heavy metals contained in the waste effluent that can cause an environmental or disposal problem. Of the 13 priority pollutant metals tested for, two are found in elevated levels in passivation waste effluent waters. The two heavy metals are chromium and nickel.
废液的处理是一项重要的事情。用于清洁和钝化的化学试剂都是水溶性的并且易于中和。除了溶解在酸洗液中的重金属以外,对废液危害性仅有的判别是pH在2-12.5外。就是流出废液中的重金属能导致环境或处理问题。在经检测的13种优先级污染金属中,发现有两种金属在钝化废液中的水平有所增加。这两种重金属是:铬和镍。

Fluids discharged must meet the site's discharge temperature requirements.
排放的液体必须满足位点的排放温度要去。

There are three options for dealing with waste solutions generated when passivating:
有三个选项用于处理钝化生成的废液:

•They can be put into chemical drains. This can only be done where compatible drain and treatment systems are available.
  可以将它们注入化学试剂排放设备。只有在配伍的排放设备和处理系统有效时,才能采取该方法。

•Neutralize waste solutions in contractor-supplied equipment and discharge through chemical drain to site treatment system.
  在承包商供应的设备中中和废液并通过化学试剂排放设备排放到处理系统。

•Off-site disposal is the final option. It is the most costly form of disposal.
  最后一个选项是脱线排放。这种排放方式的费用最高。

Should a site waste treatment system not be available, permission could be obtained from the municipal or private sewer authority to put neutralized waste solutions to sanitary drains. Under no conditions should any waste solutions in any form be permitted to enter storm sewer systems
如果没有可用的废水处理系统,可经市政或私人下水道的授权将中和的废液流到污水下水道。在任何情况下,任何形式的废液都不允许进入雨水下水道。

You will, however, receive documentation confirming proper disposal of waste solutions. Documentation would include a bill of lading or hazardous waste manifest and receipts from the state certified treatment facility where the waste solutions are being transported and treated. When off-site disposal is being used, it is important to verify the credentials of the hauler and final destination site before utilizing their services.
然而,必须要收到确定废水已适当排放的文件。文件应包括:装货单或危险废物的载货单以及合乎国家标准的处理实验室的收据,废液是在那里运输和处理的。当使用脱位处理时,重要的是在接受搬运工和最终目的地的服务前,应验证他们的证书。

Ultimately, disposing of waste solutions in a proper and legal manner is the responsibility of all involved parties. The owner of the property where the waste solutions are generated, contractors, subcontractors involved with the use of the chemicals, haulers, and the final waste treatment facility would all have some liability for proper disposal of waste solutions.
最后,以适当的合法的方式排放废液是所有参与者的责任。产生废液的所有权主、承包商、涉及化学试剂使用的次级承包商、搬运工以及最终废物处理实验室对废液的合理排放都有责任。

11.3.16   Documentation
11.3.16   文件

Complete and detailed documentation should be kept as the procedure is being performed. Specifics on chemical concentrations, temperatures, contact time, quality of rinse water supply, and effluent sample readings should all be recorded.
应根据执行的规程来保存完整的详细的文件。关于化学试剂的浓度、温度、接触时间、供应的冲洗用水的质量以及流出样的读数都应记录下来。

Some contractors use job log sheets to record chronological job data including specifics from the time the contractor arrives on-site until the time he leaves. In addition to job log sheets, passivation log sheets should be completed. Detailed information, as discussed above, can be plugged into a "fill in the blank" form supplied by passivation contractor, validation firm, or owner. No matter how the information is recorded, the important thing is that detailed and accurate documentation is kept. The following information can be submitted to the owner and become incorporated into the final validation documentation:
一些承包商采用工作日志单来记录按时间顺序的工作数据,包括从承包商到达现场的时间到离开时间内的明确的情况。除了工作日志单之外,还要完成钝化日志单。可将详细信息(如以上讨论的)加到钝化承包商、验证公司或所有权者提供的“填空”表格中。无论信息是如何记录的,重要的是保留详细准确的文件。下列信息能提交给所有权者并且可以合并到最终验证文件中:

•Passivation Procedure
  钝化规程

•Miscellaneous Pertinent Information
  多方面相关信息

•Procedure Development Data
  操作生成的数据

•Testing Procedure and Equipment
  检测程序和设备

•Pssivation Log Sheets
  钝化日志单

•Chemical Batch Record Information
  化学试剂批次记录信息

•Marked up system drawings, completed using point check list or line identification list.
  有标识的系统图、完整的用点检查表或线路鉴别表


目前有 10 条评论
Maythitty 2013-10-09 17:23回复
支持博主,加油
JaftLultalf 2013-09-14 15:03回复
中英对照,值得学习的资料。
Dyncanaws 2013-09-13 21:27回复
东西不错,来学习
irraggizvaw 2013-08-29 11:21回复
技术性比较强,不错
Norfoerty 2013-08-21 08:51回复
内容不少,还是中英文的。
AxiodekedeDer 2013-08-14 10:44回复
留下足迹,好网站,好主题!
plaularsE 2013-08-12 00:05回复
支持ISPE,谢谢
aginisaps 2013-08-09 14:59回复
讲得较细,还是中英文对照的。
Jiveassaura 2013-08-08 03:37回复
ISPE的东西都是经典,这篇也不例外。
南京雅思课程 2013-05-23 15:58回复
文章写的不错,赞一个!

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