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FDA清洗过程验证检查指南(中英)

时间:2010年11月22日 ⁄ 分类: 验证 评论:0
清洗过程验证检查指南
  GUIDE TO INSPECTIONS VALIDATION OF CLEANING PROCESSES
  请注意:本指南是检查官和其他FDA人员的参考材料。本指南不受FDA约束,并没有赋予任何人任何权利、特权、收益或豁免权。
  Note: This document is reference material for investigators and other FDA personnel. The document does not bind FDA, and does no confer any rights, privileges, benefits, or immunities for or on any person(s).
  I.介绍
  I. INTRODUCTION
  自从机构文件,包括原料药化学制剂检查指南和生物制剂检查指南,大体上提到该清洗问题以来,就出现了关于清洗过程验证的大量讨论。这些机构文件清晰的建立了要验证的清洗过程需要达到的要求。
  Validation of cleaning procedures has generated considerable discussion since agency documents, including the Inspection Guide for Bulk Pharmaceutical Chemicals and the Biotechnology Inspection Guide, have briefly addressed this issue. These Agency documents clearly establish the expectation that cleaning procedures (processes) be validated.
  键本指南是为了通过讨论实际操作是可接受的(或不可接受的),来建立检查要求的一致性和统一性。同时,对清洗验证需要了解的是,像其他过程验证一样,可能有不止一种方法来对过程进行验证。最后,任何验证过程的测试就是指科学数据是否显示出系统与要求相符和产生的结果是否符合预先定义的参数指标。
  This guide is designed to establish inspection consistency and uniformity by discussing practices that have been found acceptable (or unacceptable). Simultaneously, one must recognize that for cleaning validation, as with validation of other processes, there may be more than one way to validate a process. In the end, the test of any validation process is whether scientific data shows that the system consistently does as expected and produces a result that consistently meets predetermined specifications.[separator]
  本指南只适用于化学残留物的设备清洗。
  This guide is intended to cover equipment cleaning for chemical residues only.
  II.背景
  II. BACKGROUND
  对于FDA来说,要求设备在使用前进行清洗并不新奇。1963GMP法规(部分133.4)中指出“设备***应该按照清洁和有序的方式进行维护***。” 在1978 CGMP法规中也包含了非常相似的有关设备清洗的章节(211.67)。当然,清洁设备的主要理由是防止药品被污染或掺假。在历史上,FDA检查官寻找由于对设备不当的清洗和维护和/或不良的灰尘控制系统而带来的总体不卫生情况。而且,从历史上来说,FDA对非青霉素药品中的青霉素污染或药品中的活性激素或荷尔蒙交叉污染更加关注。有很多药品在过去十年中被撤回就是因为实际的或潜在的青霉素的交叉污染。
  For FDA to require that equipment be clean prior to use is nothing new, the 1963 GMP Regulations (Part 133.4) stated as follows "Equipment *** shall be maintained in a clean and orderly manner ***." A very similar section on equipment cleaning (211.67) was included in the 1978 CGMP regulations. Of course, the main rationale for requiring clean equipment is to prevent contamination or adulteration of drug products. Historically, FDA investigators have looked for gross insanitation due to inadequate cleaning and maintenance of equipment and/or poor dust control systems. Also, historically speaking, FDA was more concerned about the contamination of nonpenicillin drug products with penicillins or the cross-contamination of drug products with potent steroids or hormones. A number of products have been recalled over the past decade due to actual or potential penicillin cross-contamination.
  导致FDA对由于不满足要求的过程导致交叉污染的可能性的进一步关注的案例是,1988年对成品药消胆胺树脂USP的撤回。用于生产成品的原料药被生产农用杀虫剂中产生的中间体和降解物污染。本案例中的交叉污染被认为是由于回收溶剂的重新使用。回收溶剂由于缺乏对溶剂桶的重新使用的控制而被污染。用于储存杀虫剂生产过程中的回收溶剂的溶剂桶,后来又用于储存树脂生产过程的回收溶剂。公司没有对这些溶剂桶进行适当的控制,而且没有对桶中的溶剂进行适当的测试,也没有对桶的清洗过程进行验证。
  One event which increased FDA awareness of the potential for cross contamination due to inadequate procedures was the 1988 recall of a finished drug product, Cholestyramine Resin USP. The bulk pharmaceutical chemical used to produce the product had become contaminated with low levels of intermediates and degradants from the production of agricultural pesticides. The cross-contamination in that case is believed to have been due to the reuse of recovered solvents. The recovered solvents had been contaminated because of a lack of control over the reuse of solvent drums. Drums that had been used to store recovered solvents from a pesticide production process were later used to store recovered solvents used for the resin manufacturing process. The firm did not have adequate controls over these solvent drums, did not do adequate testing of drummed solvents, and did not have validated cleaning procedures for the drums.
  一些被杀虫剂污染的原料药后来被运输到另外一家在其他地方的工厂进行最后加工。这导致了由于工厂的流体床干燥器被杀虫剂污染而把使用的包装袋污染。结果导致了在该工厂地点生产的很多批次被交叉污染,该地点在正常情况下是不生产杀虫剂的。
  Some shipments of this pesticide contaminated bulk pharmaceutical were supplied to a second facility at a different location for finishing. This resulted in the contamination of the bags used in that facility's fluid bed dryers with pesticide contamination. This in turn led to cross contamination of lots produced at that site, a site where no pesticides were normally produced.
  FDA在1992年对使用普通设备生产的活性激素产品和非激素产品的国外原料药生产商提出了进口警告。该公司是多用途原料药制药工厂。FDA认为交叉污染的可能性非常大,并对公众健康产生严重威胁。公司只是在最近被检查的时候才开始进行清洗验证程序,FDA认为这是不够的。其中的一个原因是,公司只寻找了以前化合物缺乏的证据。公司从冲洗水的TLC测试上有证据表明,来自以前的过程中反应副产品和降解物的残留物的存在。
  FDA instituted an import alert in 1992 on a foreign bulk pharmaceutical manufacturer which manufactured potent steroid products as well as non-steroidal products using common equipment. This firm was a multi-use bulk pharmaceutical facility. FDA considered the potential for cross-contamination to be significant and to pose a serious health risk to the public. The firm had only recently started a cleaning validation program at the time of the inspection and it was considered inadequate by FDA. One of the reasons it was considered inadequate was that the firm was only looking for evidence of the absence of the previous compound. The firm had evidence, from TLC tests on the rinse water, of the presence of residues of reaction byproducts and degradants from the previous process.
  III.常规要求
  III. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
  FDA要求公司具有详细地记录设备各种零件的清洗过程的书面程序(SOP's)。如果公司在清洁不同批次的相同产品时使用一种清洗过程,而在清洗不同产品时使用一种不同的清洗过程,那么我们要求书面程序能包括这些不同的细节。相似地,如果公司在除掉可溶于水的残留物时使用一种过程,而对于不可溶于水的残留物时使用另外一种过程,书面程序应当说明这两种过程,并且明确的阐述出何时应该遵守已知的过程。原料药公司也许会使用特定的设备来进行特定的化学生产过程,这些过程会产生的焦油状或粘状的残留物而可能很难被除掉。流体床的干燥器袋是很难清洗的设备之一,经常用于特定的产品。清洗过程本身留下的任何残留物也必须清除掉(清洁剂、溶剂等)。
  FDA expects firms to have written procedures (SOP's) detailing the cleaning processes used for various pieces of equipment. If firms have one cleaning process for cleaning between different batches of the same product and use a different process for cleaning between product changes, we expect the written procedures to address these different scenario. Similarly, if firms have one process for removing water soluble residues and another process for non-water soluble residues, the written procedure should address both scenarios and make it clear when a given procedure is to be followed. Bulk pharmaceutical firms may decide to dedicate certain equipment for certain chemical manufacturing process steps that produce tarry or gummy residues that are difficult to remove from the equipment. Fluid bed dryer bags are another example of equipment that is difficult to clean and is often dedicated to a specific product. Any residues from the cleaning process itself (detergents, solvents, etc.) also have to be removed from the equipment.
  FDA要求公司具有验证清洗过程的常规书面程序。
  FDA expects firms to have written general procedures on how cleaning processes will be validated.
  FDA要求常规验证程序说明负责执行和批准验证研究的人员,验收标准以及所要求的再验证时间。
  FDA expects the general validation procedures to address who is responsible for performing and approving the validation study, the acceptance criteria, and when revalidation will be required.
  FDA要求公司在对每个生产系统或设备进行研究之前准备特定的书面验证协议。这些协议应当涉及样本程序,采用的分析方法以及这些方法的灵敏性等问题。
  FDA expects firms to prepare specific written validation protocols in advance for the studies to be performed on each manufacturing system or piece of equipment which should address such issues as sampling procedures, and analytical methods to be used including the sensitivity of those methods.
  FDA要求公司按照协议来进行验证研究,并将这些研究结果记录备案。
  FDA expects firms to conduct the validation studies in accordance with the protocols and to document the results of studies.
  FDA要求一份最终验证报告,该报告需经管理部门批准并且指出了该清洗过程是否有效。数据应当证明,残留物级别已经达到“可接受的程度”。
  FDA expects a final validation report which is approved by management and which states whether or not the cleaning process is valid. The data should support a conclusion that residues have been reduced to an "acceptable level."
  IV.清洗验证的评估
  IV. EVALUATION OF CLEANING VALIDATION
  第一步应该集中在验证过程的目标上,而且我们已经知道一些公司没有实现这样的目标。生产商在清洗过程中使用大量的样本和验证程序,而从未真正地对设备的清洗步骤进行有效性评估,这样的做法不足为奇。当对清洗设备进行评估时,应当说明一些问题。例如,认为设备或系统是清洁的标准是什么?必须要用手擦洗吗?手擦清洗跟洗涤剂清洗相比应该伴随什么过程?从批次到批次的手工清洗过程与从产品到产品有什么样的变化?由于我们必须确定整个过程的有效性,所以在检查和评估清洗过程时,回答这些问题的重要性是显而易见的。对这些问题的回答也可能断定哪些步骤可以省略,来进行更有效的评估,并为公司节省资源。
  The first step is to focus on the objective of the validation process, and we have seen that some companies have failed to develop such objectives. It is not unusual to see manufacturers use extensive sampling and testing programs following the cleaning process without ever really evaluating the effectiveness of the steps used to clean the equipment. Several questions need to be addressed when evaluating the cleaning process. For example, at what point does a piece of equipment or system become clean? Does it have to be scrubbed by hand? What is accomplished by hand scrubbing rather than just a solvent wash? How variable are manual cleaning processes from batch to batch and product to product? The answers to these questions are obviously important to the inspection and evaluation of the cleaning process since one must determine the overall effectiveness of the process. Answers to these questions may also identify steps that can be eliminated for more effective measures and result in resource savings for the company.
  确定对每个设备部件的清洗过程的数量。在理想的情况下,每个设备或系统的部件都应该有相应的一种清洗过程。但是,这要取决于被生产的产品,以及清洗是否发生在同一产品的批次之间(如在较大的清洗规模中),还是发生在不同产品的批次之间。当在同一产品的批次之间进行清洗时(或者在原料药工艺中同一中间体的不同批次之间),公司只需要达到“设备看起来是清洁”的标准就行了。批次之间的清洗过程并不需要验证。
  Determine the number of cleaning processes for each piece of equipment. Ideally, a piece of equipment or system will have one process for cleaning, however this will depend on the products being produced and whether the cleanup occurs between batches of the same product (as in a large campaign) or between batches of different products. When the cleaning process is used only between batches of the same product (or different lots of the same intermediate in a bulk process) the firm need only meet a criteria of, "visibly clean" for the equipment. Such between batch cleaning processes do not require validation.

  1.设备设计
  1. Equipment Design
  检查设备的设计。尤其是在那些大的系统中,可能使用了半自动或全自动的实地清洗系统,这是非常令人担心的。例如,应当使用没有球阀的清洁管道。当使用不清洁球阀时(在原料药企业中很常见),清洗过程会更困难些。
  Examine the design of equipment, particularly in those large systems that may employ semi-automatic or fully automatic clean-in-place (CIP) systems since they represent significant concern. For example, sanitary type piping without ball valves should be used. When such nonsanitary ball valves are used, as is common in the bulk drug industry, the cleaning process is more difficult.
  当这些系统都相同时,执行清洗操作的人员应该知道问题所在,并且在清洗这些系统和阀门方面经过特殊的训练。应该确定清洗工作人员是否了解这些系统以及在清洗系统中的训练程度和经验。另外还要核对书面的经核实的清洗过程来确定这些系统是否被正确的鉴定和验证。
  When such systems are identified, it is important that operators performing cleaning operations be aware of problems and have special training in cleaning these systems and valves. Determine whether the cleaning operators have knowledge of these systems and the level of training and experience in cleaning these systems. Also check the written and validated cleaning process to determine if these systems have been properly identified and validated.
  在一些更大的系统中,例如那些使用很长的传送带或管道系统,应该对流程图和鉴定阀门的管道系统图和书面的清洗程序进行检查。应当在管道和阀门上贴上标签,并且可以被执行清洗过程的工作人员很容易地辨认出。有时,对阀门的示意图和标签鉴定不当,会导致不正确的清洗操作。
  In larger systems, such as those employing long transfer lines or piping, check the flow charts and piping diagrams for the identification of valves and written cleaning procedures. Piping and valves should be tagged and easily identifiable by the operator performing the cleaning function. Sometimes, inadequately identified valves, both on prints and physically, have led to incorrect cleaning practices.
  应该经常检查清洗过程的文档中是否保存了通常关键的因素;并鉴定和控制在过程结束和每个清洗步骤之间的时间长度。这对于局部的、悬浮剂和原料药操作尤其重要。在这些操作中,残留物的烘干将直接影响到清洗过程的效率。
  Always check for the presence of an often critical element in the documentation of the cleaning processes; identifying and controlling the length of time between the end of processing and each cleaning step. This is especially important for topicals, suspensions, and bulk drug operations. In such operations, the drying of residues will directly affect the efficiency of a cleaning process.
  是否使用CIP系统清洗工艺设备,应该考虑微生物部分的设备清洗。这主要是指预防措施,而不是在玷污后再除掉污染物。应该证明,常规清洗设备和设备存储时就不会有微生物繁殖。例如,设备在存储前应该被干燥,任何情况下都不允许有污水留在清洗后的设备中。
  Whether or not CIP systems are used for cleaning of processing equipment, microbiological aspects of equipment cleaning should be considered. This consists largely of preventive measures rather than removal of contamination once it has occurred. There should be some evidence that routine cleaning and storage of equipment does not allow microbial proliferation. For example, equipment should be dried before storage, and under no circumstances should stagnant water be allowed to remain in equipment subsequent to cleaning operations.
  在清洗完成之后,用于无菌处理和产品可以支持微生物生长而不经消毒处理的设备也许要进行杀菌和卫生处理。这种杀菌和卫生处理程序已超出指导范围。强调在充分的设备清洗和存储中控制生物负荷,从而保证接下来的杀菌或卫生处理程序达到确保无菌是很重要的。因为设备杀菌过程不能够获得显著的失活或除去热原质,所以这对无菌处理热原质控制的立场来看也特别重要。
  Subsequent to the cleaning process, equipment may be subjected to sterilization or sanitization procedures where such equipment is used for sterile processing, or for nonsterile processing where the products may support microbial growth. While such sterilization or sanitization procedures are beyond the scope of this guide, it is important to note that control of the bioburden through adequate cleaning and storage of equipment is important to ensure that subsequent sterilization or sanitization procedures achieve the necessary assurance of sterility. This is also particularly important from the standpoint of the control of pyrogens in sterile processing since equipment sterilization processes may not be adequate to achieve significant inactivation or removal of pyrogens.



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